Contents:  1. Parts listed elsewhere
Contents:  2. Parts listed here
       – – – – < p a r t i t i o n > – – – –
Contents:  3. History
Contents:  4. Factory Tour
Contents:  5. Models
Contents:  6. Speed Versions


1. Parts listed elsewhere

These are parts that are, or could be, used on many other brands. Instead of listing them repeatedly for each brand, they are listed by type or by component maker.  

Gas Caps
102 and 103 gas caps are 30mm push-in type. See Gas Caps  Section 8
TSM top tank gas cap is 40mm external wing. See Gas Caps Section 7

Gas Valves
102 takes a 10×1 male spigot down, with 20mm extender See Gas Valves number A8
If the extender is not missing, then a no-extender A2 valve can fit with the old extender.
103 takes a 10×1 male spigot down, no extender,  See Gas Valves number A2
TSM takes a 10×1 male spigot left, no extender, See Gas Valves number A4

Stickers and Emblems  listed, but only some are for sale. See Stickers, scroll to Peugeot

Covers All are listed, only some are for sale. See Covers and Reflectors. scroll to Peugeot

Reflectors Not yet listed. See Covers and Reflectors.

Speedometer parts Not yet listed.

Engine Parts All are listed, most are for sale. See Peugeot Motor
Peugeot 103 motor is used on some Batavus models. So it is separate from Peugeot.
Peugeot 102 motor has much in common with 103, so it is with Peugeot Motor.

Pistons and Rings All the same, but pistons have different “sort” sizes.


Bearings and Seals All models are the same. See Bearings and Seals
Crank bearing left 20x47x14 #6204, right 17x40x12 #6203
Crank seal left 20x30x5, right 16x30x5

Engine Hardware clutch and magneto nuts, shims, clips, etc. See Engine Hardware

Carburetor/Gurtner All listed. See Gurtner, scroll to Peugeot

Exhaust parts All listed. See Exhaust, scroll down to Peugeot

Tires and tubes All are listed and for sale in Tires and Tubes
102 front and rear is 2.00-17, can be 2.25-17
103 front and rear is 2.25-17
TSM front and rear is 2.50-17

Wheel parts – Leleu Some things are listed. See Wheel Parts

Brakes All the same, except 102 rear is smaller. See Brakes
103, TSM, 102 front, Leleu 80 x 18
102 rear brakes are Leleu 70 x 16

Spokes All have 28-spoke 17″ rims, 1-cross spoke pattern. See Spokes
102, 103, TSM front spokes 165 x 2.4 (0.55 thread)
103, TSM x rear spokes are 167 x 2.7 (0.55 thread)
102 xxxxxx rear spokes are 171 x 2.7 (0.55 thread)

Belts three sizes of V-belts are listed, 102 no-var, 103 no-var, 103 var. See Belts

Chains Pedal chain is bicycle 1/2 x 1/8  See Chains
Motor chain is wider 1/2 x 3/16 #415 or #415H  (415 “became” 415H in the 1990’s)
Rubber rings on the front sprocket initially interfere with 415H chains. See Chains

Sprockets Not yet listed. Sprocket teeth are in Speed Versions above.

Pedal parts Pedals, pedal arms, pins, freewheels are in Pedal Parts
Peugeot uses non-standard 14mm M14-1.25 French pedal threads
Peugeot uses standard (not French) freewheel threads, 18 tooth

Controls/Magura All have the same controls. See Magura Controls
Peugeot brake cable holes are bottomless M6x1 threaded for M6x1 adjuster-stop
All other Magura holes have a bottom and smooth for Magura-type adjuster-stops

Cables Peugeot cables are all single-ended. See Cables

Cable parts See Cable Parts

Switches See Switches
103 L2,LS,LVS pre-late-79 had CEV 8040.5 and 8187 round chrome clamp-on switches
103 SP, SPB pre-late-1979 had Merit 343 and 342 round-flat chrome clamp-on switches
All models after late-1979 had CEV 8188 and 8189 black plastic clamp-on slide switches

Head lights See Headlights



Tail Lights See Tail Lights





2. Parts (specific to Peugeot)

These are parts that are specific to Peugeot, mostly.



Coming soon: Peugeot (non-motor) frame parts, fork parts, fender parts, trim parts, center stands, etc.






By 1890 the recently invented roller chain had eliminated the big wheel, so the rider could be near the ground, for more safety and convenience. But air tires did not yet exist, so it was a bumpy ride.

3. Peugeot History

From Wikipedia and A History of Corporate Governance…  and The Peugeot Family 

It was during the second half of the 1700’s that Jean-Pierre Peugeot (born in 1734) took the initiative that was to lead his family towards industry. Initially flour millers, dyers and tanners, the family began its metalwork industry in 1810. Jean-Pierre Peugeot II (1768-1852) and Jean-Frédéric Peugeot, the two older sons and son-in-law J. Maillard-Salins, established a company for the melting and working of steel, in Montbéliard, while their two younger brothers, Charles-Christophe Peugeot and Jean-Jacques Peugeot chose the textile industry. The company’s trademark, a lion, was created in 1858 by an engraver, Justin Blazer, who lived near the factory. The company turned their steel into knives and forks, razors, sewing machine parts, clock springs, stays, hoops for women’s crinoline skirts, hydraulic equipment, and later in the 1880’s, bicycle spokes and rims.

Jean-Pierre Peugeot’s daughter Emile Peugeot had a an industrious son Armand Peugeot (1849-1915). In 1882 at Beaulieu-sur-Doubs (in Mandeure, Doubs) the first Peugeot bicycle, a penny-farthing (high wheeler) called Le Grand Bi was hand-built by Armand Peugeot. That same year 1882 he founded Cycles Peugeot. Later, after building steam and Daimler engine powered automobiles, in 1896 Armand Peugeot founded Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot. The development of automobiles is a whole other story.

1977 Cycles Peugeot (USA) advertisement

Enjoy the story of Peugeot, exactly as told by Cycles Peugeot in 1977.

Europe’s largest 2-wheel producer was founded in 1810 by a pair of miners who saw a better future working metal above ground. You already know their name; that first little foundry of the Peugeot brothers had a date with history, In 1882 the family turned its metal working skills to a new product, the bicycle. That led to automobiles, which led to an international business empire. At the top of that empire, a financial holding company, Peugeot S.A., controls three main companies: Cycles Peugeot, Automobiles Peugeot, and Automobiles Citroen. They comprise 180 subsidiaries with 175,000 employees … 25,000 of them with the 80 subsidiaries located ouside of France. But automobiles have never seduced Peugeot away from 2-wheelers.

Though other car makers have bikes in their past … and many bike makers (America’s Columbia, for example) once flirted with autos … today only Peugeot’s name stands for both. And although there is diversity in Peugeot products – to bikes, mopeds and cars must be added tubing, containers, hydraulic loading platforms, store fixtures, kitchen furniture, houshold items, etc. – Cycles Peugeot’s 2-wheel concentration is emphatic and productive: In 1976 it accounted for 37% of France’s 1.9 million bike production and 57% of its bike export, 45% of France’s moped production and 50% of its moped export.

The small within the big  Size and diversity often rule out the slow, painstaking hand craftsmanship that produces bicycles for professional racers and amateur connoisseurs. Not so at Peugeot. True, the production lines of its vast Beaulieu works can turn out a bicycle every 15 seconds, a moped every 20. Block-long tube mills form tubing at 50 meters a minute. Mighty presses stamp out parts that conveyor belts move to their destinies at thousands an hour. But within the same walls is another, very different kind of production:

The “Atelier Prestige” Prestige Studio, is a quiet, immaculate workshop, where a small team of craftsmen make Peugeot’s top-of-the-line PY10 and PY60 models … one at a time, entirely by hand. From this room come the bikes of the famous Peugeot racing team, and its star, Bernard Thevenet, who has just won the Tour de France for the second time in three years. And from this room and these same, unhurried hands come the PY10’s and PY60’s you order.

The order form for one of these is a two-page document, with space to specify not only such obvious choices as frame size and color but also chain wheels, crank length, hub style, sprockets, toe clip length, anodize choice (silver or gold) for light alloy components, saddle choice, etc. Any demand can be honored, but the order form gives sound recommendations and a complete gear table as a guide for those who need it.

French first: The late 1890’s were an era marked by heavy investment in and widespread purchase of French cycle firms by foreign interests. Peugeot, in 1897, gave its response to this trend in an advertisement: “THE HOUSE OF PEUGEOT HOLDS TO THE HONOR OF REMAINING FRENCH; it has REJECTED the considerable offers which have been made and announces that WHATEVER PRICE IS OFFERED, IT WILL REMAIN FRENCH!” When it comes to choosing components, Peugeot still holds to that honor. In an era when the makeup of bikes is increasingly international, it features French. It is not denied that many nations make fine components, or that superb bicycles may be built using a blend of them. Nor are they totally unyielding; Reynolds tubing forms their top-of-the-line frames, and Weinmann brakes are found on the UO-8, it’s biggest U.S. seller. But Peugeot holds that a bicycle is the sum of its parts, and that in a French bicycle, as many as possible should be French. Given the scope and technology of French components available, they prefer not to look elsewhere.






Although four factories contribute to Peugeot’s 2-wheel production, the 200,000-square-meter complex at Beaulieu is the main resource. This beautiful terrain of hills and rivers, called the Doubs Region, is definately Peugeot Country. It is where the brothers Peugeot started in 1810. Today’s factory stands on the site of the mill the family bought in 1857 to make spring steel … for ladies’ hoop skirts … a style the bicycle was to help eliminate. Here were made their first bikes, and here are made their latest. It is not surprising to find entire “Peugeot families: – grandfather, father, son and daughter-in-law – all Peugeot workers. The company’s participation in the life of the region extends to housing, restaurants, libraries, holiday camps and medical care for its thousands of workers.

In the U.S.  Cycles Peugeot directs the activities of such national subsidiaries as Cycles Peugeot Germany, Cycles Peugeot Spain … and of course, Cycles Peugeot (USA) Inc. – founded in January 1976. The parent company and the U.S. division share the same president, Bertrand Peugeot. General manager Edouard de Truchis conducts operations from the headquarters and warehouse in Gardena, Cal., and Eastern Division manager Ron Krieger is in the offices and warehouse in New Jersey. The office and public warehousing in Jacksonville, Fla., is supervised by Joe Morris, and is part of the Eastern Division. Cycles Peugeot (USA) is the sole U.S. distributor of the brand, and sells to specialist cycle and moped dealers only. It also distributes a number of European and American parts lines. About 400 people make up the staff, of whom 14 are salesmen calling regularly on dealers.

Peugeot History p1

’77 Peugeot ad 1

Peugeot History p2

’77 Peugeot ad 2

Peugeot History p3

’77 Peugeot ad 3

Peugeot has indeed made its mark in the U.S. bike market. In an era of countless brands and labels, they have made theirs on of those to be reckoned with. Any trade discussion of the factors in the market must include Peugeot, any gathering of cyclists is dotted with the familiar white frames with checkerboard trim. Their Tour de France victory is a reminder that these people are serious about bicycles. Their establishment of Cycles Peugeot (USA) says that they are serious about the American market.


1980’s update: In the 1980’s many things changed. Peugeot bicycles more and more became equipped with Japan or Taiwan made components, instead of all French. Peugeot 102 mopeds were sold in Montgomery Wards department stores, instead of only at Peugeot moped dealers. Department stores could not sell 103’s, and moped dealers could not sell 102’s. In 1981 when Royal Cyclery sold Peugeot 103’s for $599, Shaun remembers a big banner on the Montgomery Wards store in the newly built Hawthorne Mall. It said “MOPEDS $279”. That was unbelievably low. Even the low cost Taiwan made Speed Bird was $399 at Royal Cyclery. Department stores always did have lower priced bicycles than mom-and-pops bike shops, both because the product was made cheaper, and was purchased in huge quantities.

Like other moped makers, many 1980 models were made and stockpiled, to be sold in 1981 to maybe 1983. This was to avoid 1981 and later manufacturer requirements, such as the 17-digit VIN and noise level compliance labeling. But by 1984 Peugeot USA moped sales were way down because of low gas prices and competition from Honda, Yamaha and Suzuki. Around 1984-85 Cycles Peugeot stopped selling mopeds in the USA, but continued with bicycles. 

Shaun’s dad’s shop Royal Cyclery sold Peugeot bicycles and mopeds. Mountain bikes came out in the early 1980’s. Peugeot held onto the old ways longer than other makers. In 1984 the Peugeot Canyon Express was the last brazed lugged frame mountain bike, where all others were lug-less TIG-welded. Peugeot bicycle sales at Royal Cyclery kept on into the early 1990’s.      


4. Tour of Cycles Peugeot 

Enjoy these pages from “CYCLES PEUGEOT – Structures of the Group” May 1977. This 72-page brochure with a plain silver cover, promotes Cycles Peugeot products, for Peugeot products dealers, sellers and business clients. 

Production organization

Peugeot mopeds were made in several different factory locations.

Beaulieu is the main production facility, where Peugeot frames, wheels, and parts were made, and mopeds are assembled.

Saint Louis is where Peugeot engines were made by SMHR.

Dannemarie is where Peugeot magnetos were made, by SMHR.

Cerci la Tour is where Peugeot forks, fenders, racks were made, by SOMENI.

Components like tires, speedometers, switches, lights, brakes were purchased from component makers.  




The SMHR Factory at Saint Louis

The Societe Mecanique du Haut-Rhin factory at Saint Louis is where Peugeot engines were manufactured. In 1977 SMHR was producing 3500 moped engines per day.

Saint Louis factory

Die Casting


Engine assembly room












The SMHR Factory at Dannemarie

The Societe Mecanique du Haut-Rhin factory at Dannemarie is where Peugeot magneto flywheels were manufactured. 

Dannemarie factory

Winding coils











The Doubs Factory at Beaulieu

Doubs is the region, Beaulieu is the town. This is the main production center of Cycles Peugeot. Impressive, massive, mind-boggling. What would you call it?

Pressing and stamping

Frame assembling

Painting and Decals

Wheel assembling












Final assembling

Moped testing room













5. Peugeot Models


1976-77 Peugeot 103 (US models)

1976 Peugeot 103 LVS red with white trim

1976 Peugeot 103 LVS
fire red with white trim
rouge tison (cinder red)

1976 Peugeot 103 LVS blue with white trim

1976 Peugeot 103 LVS
bright blue with white
bleu radieux (radiant blue)

1977 Peugeot 103 LVS

1977 Peugeot 103 LVS
bright blue with white
bleu radieux (radiant blue)









1977 Peugeot 103 L2 (hard tail), modified engine and handlebars
bright blue with white trim, bleu radieux (radiant blue)









103 L2 has no rear suspension and no variator, 103 LS has rear suspension, but no variator, 103 LVS has rear suspension and a variator.


1977 Peugeot 103 Ad

1977 Cycles Peugeot (USA) flyer

Cycles Peugeot Paint Colors

TS rouge tison (cinder red)
BX bleu radieux (radiant blue)
VK vert kentucky (Kentucky green)
VD vert dore (golden green)
BS bleu sidéral (sidereal blue)
IP ivoire persan (Persian ivory)
CM ciel métalisé (sky metallic)
OM orange métalisé (orange metallic)
AM amande métalisé (almond metallic)
BZ blanc irisé (iridescent white)

Peugeot Colors Chart










1978-79 Peugeot 103 (US models)

1978 Peugeot 103 LVS red with white trim

1978 Peugeot 103 LVS
fire red with white trim
rouge tison (cinder red)

1978 Peugeot 103 Ad

1978 Peugeot Ad

1978 Peugeot 103 SP
grass-green and black
vert dore (golden green)

1978 Peugeot 103 SPB
grass-green and black
restored by Jam Mam
vert dore (golden green)










The L models (L2, LS, LVS) are 3 inches lower than the SP (SP, SPB, SPR) models. They have less suspension travel, and less chrome.


1979 Peugeot 103 LVS green with white trim

1979 Peugeot 103 LVS
bright green with white trim
vert kentucky (kentucky green)

1979 Peugeot 103 SP aqua blue metallic

1979 Peugeot 103 SP
candy aqua & black trim
bleu sidéral (sidereal blue)

1979 Peugeot 103 SP aqua/black with long seat

1979 Peugeot 103 SPB
aqua/black with long seat
bleu sidéral (sidereal blue)










1980-83 Peugeot 103 (US models)

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS restored by B. Small

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS
restored by B. Small

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS restored by B. Small

1980 103 LVS, ivory & olive-silver
ivoire persan (persian ivory)











1980 Peugeot 103 LVS silver-blue with black

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS
silver-blue with black trim
ciel métalisé (sky metallic)

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS red with black trim

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS
fire red with black trim
rouge tison (cinder red)

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS orange with black trim

1980-83 Peugeot 103 LVS
met. orange with black trim
orange métalisé (o. metallic)










1980 Peugeot 103 LVS close-up of engine

1980 Peugeot 103 LVS
silver-blue, black trim
ciel métalisé (sky metallic)

1980 Peugeot 103 SP olive-silver w/black trim

1980 103 SP, olive-silver, black trim
amande métalisé (almond metallic)

1980 Peugeot 103 SPB olive-silver w/black trim

1980 103 SPR, olive-silver & black
amande métalisé (almond metallic)










103 SP has a solo seat and spoke wheels, 103 SPB has a long seat and spoke wheels, 103 SPR has a long seat and mag wheels. 


1980-82 Peugeot 102, TSM (US models)

1980 Peugeot 102 SP

1980 Peugeot 102 SPB
candy aqua & black trim
bleu sidéral (sidereal blue)

1980 Peugeot 102 SP

1980 Peugeot 102 SPB
silver-blue & black trim
ciel métalisé (sky metallic)

1980 Peugeot 102 SP
candy aqua & black trim
bleu sidéral (sidereal blue)









102 SP has a solo seat, 102 SPB has a long seat. That is the only difference. Neither came with a speedometer.

1980 Peugeot TSM

1980 TSM, top tank tube frame
blanc irisé (iridescent white)

1980 Peugeot TSM, provided by Sunday Morning Motors
blanc irisé (iridescent white)











Non-US Models

Info Peugeot Euro

Info Peugeot Euro

Peugeot Vogue

Peugeot Vogue

 Peugeot Vogue

Peugeot Vogue












6. Specifications and Speed Versions

US-model Peugeot mopeds were made in three different speed and power versions to comply with different state laws. For example, mopeds in California go 30mph, but in Nevada or Arizona they go 25mph. Each state has different moped laws. Peugeot moped speed versions are referred to by the speed version codes U1, U2 and U3. The speed version code appears after the model on the I.D. plate, on the frame behind the headlight. For example, a 103 LVS U2 is a 25mph moped with 1.5 horsepower.

U1 is 20 mph and 1.0 hp, U2 is 25 mph and 1.5 hp, U3 is 30 mph and 2.0 hp

76-80 103 L2S U3 carb  jet  intake  reed
 6-80 103 L2S U3  size  size  pipe   valve xx cylinder  cyl. head x exhaust x clutch/variator  gearing x seat  wheels

102 No Variator
79-80 102 SPB U2   10  220  8.5  none xxx xx 102 all same xxx 102 all same  fixed pulley  11 x 50T  long  spoke
79-80 102 SPB U3   12  245   12  none xxx xx 102 all same xxx 102 all same  fixed pulley  11 x 42T  solo  spoke
79-80 102 SPB U3   12  245   12  none xxxxx  102 all same xxx 102 all same  fixed pulley  11 x 42T  long  spoke
103 No Variator
76-77 103 LSS U1  8.5  240  8.5  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  restricted xx  fixed pulley  11 x 48T  solo  spoke
78-83 103 L2S U1  8.5  240  8.5  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  restricted xx  fixed pulley  11 x 48T  solo  spoke
78-80 103 L2S U2   12  245   12  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  long baffle xx fixed pulley  11 x 40T  solo  spoke
78-80 103 L2S U3   12  245   12  restricted  normal xx normalx  long baffle xx fixed pulley  11 x 36T  solo  spoke
103 Variator
76-83 103 LVS U2   12  245   12  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  long baffle xx U2 weightsx 11 x 52T  solo  spoke
78-80 103 SPS U2   12  245   12  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  long baffle xx U2 weightsx 11 x 56T  solo  spoke
79-80 103 SPB U2   12  245   12  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  long baffle xx U2 weightsx 11 x 56T  long  spoke
80-83 103 SPR U2   12  245   12  restricted  restricted  lo-comp  long baffle xx U2 weightsx 11 x 56T  long  mags
76-78 103 LVS U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x short baffle X U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  solo  spoke
78-83 103 LVS U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x long baffle xx U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  solo  spoke
77-78 103 SPS U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x short baffle x U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  solo  spoke
78-80 103 SPS U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x long baffle xx U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  solo  spoke
79-80 103 SPB U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x long baffle xx U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  long  spoke
80-83 103 SPR U3   12  245   12  normal x.  normal xx normal x long baffle xx U3 weightsx 11 x 52T  long  mags
79-80 1oo TSM U3   12  245   12  normal x.  TSM xxxx normal x TSM long xxx U3 weightsx 11 x 56T  long  spoke


Cylinder: 102 U2 and U3 are the same, but 103 U1,U2 have a different cylinder than 103 U3, with a slightly smaller exhaust port. A U1,U2 cylinder can be converted to U3 by mild “porting”, by grinding the top pf the port, at the cylinder wall, higher by 1.0 mm, and each side wider by 0.5mm.

Head: The 103 U1,U2 low compression head can be converted to U3 by milling off 1 or maybe 2 mm. Leaving off the head gasket instead, is a quick and beneficial way to increase the compression ratio. But when the head is moved closer to the piston, contact can happen. Care must be taken. A squish clearance of 0.6mm (0.024″) is recommended when cold. A minimum combustion chamber volume of 5.0cc is recommended for a 50cc swept volume, to have a maximum compression ratio of (50+5)/5 equals 11 to 1. 

Reed Valve:  The 103 U1 and U2 small round reed plate holes can be widened to “normal” round holes. Furthermore a Tomos A35 reed valve fits, and gives even more power increase because the reed plate holes are rectangles with more area. Expect a stock healthy 103 LVS U3 to go 4-5 mph faster and accelerate quicker, with just a Tomos reed valve, with no side effects.

Carburetor: To upgrade an 8.5 to a 12mm carburetor you can replace the bare body. It is too difficult to carve out because the non-removable brass spray tube is in the way.

Intake Pipe: To upgrade an 8.5 to a 12mm intake manifold you can carve out the inside, or replace it. On a Peugeot 102 the only difference between a U2 and U3 is the intake manifold.

Exhaust: The 103 U1 muffler is gloss black and has a U-turn in the removable baffle, and a hemispherical end cap. The 103 U2 and U3 muffler is dull black, with a straight tube removable baffle and a vertical channel end cap. The wider end of the vertical channel should face down, or the bike will go slower. See Exhaust

Baffle tube: Early 103 U3 models came with a short baffle tube. These went 35mph and were the fastest moped. Then in 1978 Peugeot had to slow all the bikes down to meet 30mph DOT requirements. They issued a recall to all 103 U3 owners to bring their mopeds into their dealer to have the long baffle put in. All later 103 U3 models were made with long baffles. Simply removing the baffle makes it only a little bit louder, but adds 2-3 mph in speed. See Exhaust

Belt Pulleys: The front pulley is the same on all 102 and 103-no-variator models. The variable front pulley on 103-variator models is the same except for the centrifugal variator weights are different on U2 and U3 models. All 102’s have the same 7 inch rear pulley. All 103’s have the same 8″ rear pulley.

Sprockets: All Peugeot’s have an 11 tooth front sprocket. 102 rear sprockets have smaller center holes than 103 rear sprockets (because the rear hub is smaller). 103 rear sprockets can interchange with Puch or Motobecane, except for the bolt holes. On both 102 and 103 Peugeot uses a special 5-hole pattern that is unique. They did not want people to easily change to a 6-hole Puch 45 tooth rear sprocket. It can be done with drilling.

Gearing: A smaller rear sprocket makes higher gearing, and higher possible speed. But if the gearing is already optimum, then higher gearing alone will not make any more speed, except on downhills and with tail winds. It takes a greater amount of driving force to push through the air at a greater speed, but higher gearing decreases the rear wheel driving force. So the engine has to make much more torque to achieve the higher speed.

Gearing: 102 and 103 no-variator have the same size front pulley, but the rear pulley is bigger on the 103, about 8 inch, while 102 is about 7 inch. So a 102 rear sprocket must be bigger by 8/7 to have the same overall gearing as a 103. That is why 102 rear sprockets are bigger than 103 no-variator ones.